# Numbers to Roman Numerals

Convert arabic numbers to roman numerals.

## Roman Numeral System

Roman numerals were used by ancient Romans in their non-positional numeral system. This system is based on repeating symbols representing digits to write natural numbers. Roman numerals originated with the Etruscans, the predecessors of the Romans, around 500 BCE and may have been partially borrowed from the Proto-Celtic culture.

The Roman numeral system is not known for its convenience: it is difficult to write large numbers, fractions, lacks zero and negative numbers. Nevertheless, they became widespread worldwide and are still used today, for example, to denote centuries. This is due to the power and immense influence of the Roman Empire. The influence of the Etruscans and their interaction with Eastern Mediterranean cultures also played a role in shaping Roman numerals, which, like the Attic numeral system, were decimal and used repeating symbols in number representation.

Thus, the Roman numeral system not only represents the historical legacy of ancient Romans but also reflects a complex cultural exchange and the influence of various civilizations over time. The fact that you are reading these lines now means that Roman numerals are still relevant today.

## The Meaning of Numerals

Roman numeral system have the following symbols:

- I = 1
- V = 5
- X = 10
- L = 50
- C = 100
- D = 500
- M = 1000

## How to Write Roman Numbers

Integer numbers from 1 to 3999 can be written using the notation above. Above 3999, a special notation is used that changes the meaning of the symbol. A bar above a number or "overline" increases its value by 1,000 times:

- V̅ = 5 000
- X̅ = 10 000
- L̅ = 50 000
- C̅ = 100 000
- D̅ = 500 000
- M̅ = 1 000 000

Two "overlines" increases its value by 1,000,000 times:

- V̅̅ = 5 000 000
- X̅̅ = 10 000 000
- L̅̅ = 50 000 000
- C̅̅ = 100 000 000
- C̅̅L̅̅ = 500 000 000
- M̅̅ = 1 000 000 000

The numbers V, L, D cannot be repeated one after another; the numbers I, X, C, M can be repeated no more than 3 times in a row. Because of this, it is more complicated to write numbers greater than 3999.

For example, the following is correct:

- XIII = 13
- LXX = 70
- MCCC = 1300

Incorrect:

- MMMM = 4000
- VVX = 20

If a larger number comes before a smaller one, they are added together, for example:

- VII = 5 + 2 = 7
- XVI = 10 + 5 + 1 = 16
- DX = 500 + 10 = 510
- MDD = 1000 + 100 + 100 = 1200

If a smaller digit comes before a larger one (in which case it cannot be repeated), then the smaller one is subtracted from the larger one. Only numbers denoting 1 or powers of 10 can be subtracted. Only the number closest in the number series to the one being subtracted can be reduced, for example:

- IV = 5 - 1 =
**4** - IX = 10 - 1 =
**9** - XL = 50 - 10 =
**40** - XC = 100 - 10 =
**90**

- IV = 5 - 1 =

## How to write zero in Roman numerals?

There is no zero numeral in roman system. However, the word NULLA (the Latin word meaning "none") was used to represent zero

## How to write 2024 year in Roman numerals?

You can write 2024 year like this: MMXXIV. This notation can be explained as: MM (2000) + XX (20) + IV (4)

## How do you write 21 century in Roman numerals?

21 is written as **XXI**, where the digits represent: ХХ (20) + I (1)

## How to write 20 century in Roman numerals?

You can write 20 century like this: **XX**. This number consists of two Roman numerals 10: ХX (20)

## How to write 19 century in Roman numerals?

19 century is written as: **XIX**, where two Roman numerals represent X (20) + IX (9)

## How are other centuries written?

Here you will find a table of all centuries from the beginning of our era to the present day

## Most Common Roman Numbers

1 | I |

2 | II |

3 | III |

4 | IV |

5 | V |

6 | VI |

7 | VII |

8 | VIII |

9 | IX |

10 | X |

20 | XX |

30 | XXX |

40 | XL |

50 | L |

60 | LX |

70 | LXX |

80 | LXXX |

90 | XC |

100 | C |

200 | CC |

300 | CCC |

400 | CD |

500 | D |

600 | DC |

700 | DCC |

800 | DCCC |

900 | CM |

1000 | M |

2000 | MM |

3000 | MMM |

4000 | M̅V |

5000 | V̅ |

6000 | V̅M |

7000 | V̅MM |

8000 | V̅MMM |

9000 | M̅X |

10000 | X̅ |

20000 | X̅X̅ |

30000 | X̅X̅X̅ |

40000 | X̅L̅ |

50000 | L̅ |

60000 | L̅X̅ |

70000 | L̅X̅X̅ |

80000 | L̅X̅X̅X̅ |

90000 | X̅C̅ |

100000 | C̅ |

200000 | C̅C̅ |

300000 | C̅C̅C̅ |

400000 | C̅D̅ |

500000 | D̅ |

600000 | D̅C̅ |

700000 | D̅C̅C̅ |

800000 | D̅C̅C̅C̅ |

900000 | C̅M̅ |

1000000 | M̅ |

2000000 | M̅M̅ |

3000000 | M̅M̅M̅ |

4000000 | I̅̅V or M̅̅V |

5000000 | V̅̅ |

6000000 | V̅̅M |

7000000 | V̅̅MM |

8000000 | V̅̅MMM |

9000000 | I̅̅X or M̅̅X |

10000000 | X̅̅ |