Numbers to Roman Numerals

Convert arabic numbers to roman numerals.

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Roman Numeral System

Roman numerals were used by ancient Romans in their non-positional numeral system. This system is based on repeating symbols representing digits to write natural numbers. Roman numerals originated with the Etruscans, the predecessors of the Romans, around 500 BCE and may have been partially borrowed from the Proto-Celtic culture.

The Roman numeral system is not known for its convenience: it is difficult to write large numbers, fractions, lacks zero and negative numbers. Nevertheless, they became widespread worldwide and are still used today, for example, to denote centuries. This is due to the power and immense influence of the Roman Empire. The influence of the Etruscans and their interaction with Eastern Mediterranean cultures also played a role in shaping Roman numerals, which, like the Attic numeral system, were decimal and used repeating symbols in number representation.

Thus, the Roman numeral system not only represents the historical legacy of ancient Romans but also reflects a complex cultural exchange and the influence of various civilizations over time. The fact that you are reading these lines now means that Roman numerals are still relevant today.

The Meaning of Numerals

Roman numeral system have the following symbols:

  • I = 1
  • V = 5
  • X = 10
  • L = 50
  • C = 100
  • D = 500
  • M = 1000

How to Write Roman Numbers

  1. Integer numbers from 1 to 3999 can be written using the notation above. Above 3999, a special notation is used that changes the meaning of the symbol. A bar above a number or "overline" increases its value by 1,000 times:

    • V̅ = 5 000
    • X̅ = 10 000
    • L̅ = 50 000
    • C̅ = 100 000
    • D̅ = 500 000
    • M̅ = 1 000 000

    Two "overlines" increases its value by 1,000,000 times:

    • V̅̅ = 5 000 000
    • X̅̅ = 10 000 000
    • L̅̅ = 50 000 000
    • C̅̅ = 100 000 000
    • C̅̅L̅̅ = 500 000 000
    • M̅̅ = 1 000 000 000
  2. The numbers V, L, D cannot be repeated one after another; the numbers I, X, C, M can be repeated no more than 3 times in a row. Because of this, it is more complicated to write numbers greater than 3999.

    For example, the following is correct:

    • XIII = 13
    • LXX = 70
    • MCCC = 1300

    Incorrect:

    • MMMM = 4000
    • VVX = 20
  3. If a larger number comes before a smaller one, they are added together, for example:

    • VII = 5 + 2 = 7
    • XVI = 10 + 5 + 1 = 16
    • DX = 500 + 10 = 510
    • MDD = 1000 + 100 + 100 = 1200
  4. If a smaller digit comes before a larger one (in which case it cannot be repeated), then the smaller one is subtracted from the larger one. Only numbers denoting 1 or powers of 10 can be subtracted. Only the number closest in the number series to the one being subtracted can be reduced, for example:

    • IV = 5 - 1 = 4
    • IX = 10 - 1 = 9
    • XL = 50 - 10 = 40
    • XC = 100 - 10 = 90

How to write zero in Roman numerals?

There is no zero numeral in roman system. However, the word NULLA (the Latin word meaning "none") was used to represent zero

How to write 2024 year in Roman numerals?

You can write 2024 year like this: MMXXIV. This notation can be explained as: MM (2000) + XX (20) + IV (4)

How do you write 21 century in Roman numerals?

21 is written as XXI, where the digits represent: ХХ (20) + I (1)

How to write 20 century in Roman numerals?

You can write 20 century like this: XX. This number consists of two Roman numerals 10: ХX (20)

How to write 19 century in Roman numerals?

19 century is written as: XIX, where two Roman numerals represent X (20) + IX (9)

How are other centuries written?

Here you will find a table of all centuries from the beginning of our era to the present day

Most Common Roman Numbers

1I
2II
3III
4IV
5V
6VI
7VII
8VIII
9IX
10X
20XX
30XXX
40XL
50L
60LX
70LXX
80LXXX
90XC
100C
200CC
300CCC
400CD
500D
600DC
700DCC
800DCCC
900CM
1000M
2000MM
3000MMM
4000M̅V
5000
6000V̅M
7000V̅MM
8000V̅MMM
9000M̅X
10000
20000X̅X̅
30000X̅X̅X̅
40000X̅L̅
50000
60000L̅X̅
70000L̅X̅X̅
80000L̅X̅X̅X̅
90000X̅C̅
100000
200000C̅C̅
300000C̅C̅C̅
400000C̅D̅
500000
600000D̅C̅
700000D̅C̅C̅
800000D̅C̅C̅C̅
900000C̅M̅
1000000
2000000M̅M̅
3000000M̅M̅M̅
4000000I̅̅V or M̅̅V
5000000V̅̅
6000000V̅̅M
7000000V̅̅MM
8000000V̅̅MMM
9000000I̅̅X or M̅̅X
10000000X̅̅